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园艺作物应对高温暴雨洪涝生产技术指导意见

日期: 2019-07-09 作者: 来源:体育外围_体育外围平台 【字号: 打印本页

         jinqi,tiyuwaiweiguonanfangbufendiqubaoyupinfa,weijiangdizaihaiduishucai、shuiguo、chaye、zhongyaocaidengyuanyizuowushengchanzaochengdebuliyingxiang,quanguonongyejishutuiguangtiyuwaiweizhongxinhenongyenongcunbushucai、guoshu、chaye、zhongyaocaizhuanjiazhidaozubianzhileyingduigaowen、baoyu、honglaodengzaihaideshengchanjishuzhidaoyijian。

 

体育外围  shucaiyingduigaowenbaoyushengchanjishuzhidaoyijian

体育外围  quanguonongyejishutuiguangtiyuwaiweizhongxin、nongyenongcunbushucaizhuanjiazhidaozu

  yi、gaowenbaoyuduishucaishengchandeyingxiang

  (yi)daozhiguoshifulanheluohualuojia

体育外围  dangqianzhengzhiguaguoshucaijieguoshengqihuohouqi,gaowenbaoyuhuidaozhiguaguochudimianhuozheyinmianfulanerdadajiangdishangpinzaoqichanliang,fanqieqifu、qiezimianyi、xiguatanjudengguobubinghuidaliangfasheng,zaochengdamianjilangualanguo。douleishucai(jiangdou、sijidou)zhengchuyukaihuajiejiashengqi,gaowenbaoyuhuizaochengluohua,shiqijiejiachanliangdadajiangdi。

体育外围  (er)daozhiguaguoleishucaipinzhihenaizhuyunxingxiajiang

  gaowenbaoyuhuizaochengguaguoleishucaihanshuiliangdazeng,erguanghechanwuyouxiangduijianshao,jihuishigualidehantangliangjiangdi,yehuiyingxiangdaoguaguodenaizhuyunxing。

体育外围  (san)daozhibinghaixunsumanyan

  gaowenbaoyuyouliyuzhenjunbaozidemengfahejunsideshengzhang,shiyixiezhenjunxingbinghairutanjubing、junhebing、yibing、xiubing、shuangmeibingdengdaliangfasheng。gaowenbaoyuyeyouliyuxuduoxijunxingbinghaidemanyan,ruqingkubing、xijunxingjiaobanbing、jingkubing、chuangjiabing、ruanfubingdeng。gaowenbaoyuhaihuijiasuyixietuchuanbinghairukuweibingdengdemanyan。gaowenhuishizhizhuguanghezuoyonghehuxizuoyongjiaqiang,baoyuhuizaochengzhizhubiaomianlazhi、maocidepohuaierchanshengshangkou,youliyubingjundeqinru,shizhizhukangbingjiqitakangnixingxiajiang。

  (四)破坏土壤结构进而影响产品产量    

  lianxudegaowenbaoyuhuizaochengturangbanjie、dixiashuiweizenggao、turangtongqixingxiajiang,daozhishucaigenbubingbianjiaju,zaochengjianchanjianshou。ciwai,gaowenbaoyuhaihuidaozhicaiyuanneizi、zhizhuougen、yaoxiaojiangdi、zacaocongshengdengweihaidefasheng。

  二、落实灾后综合管理措施

  (yi)jiaqiangtianjianguanli

  duiyushouyancaitianyingjishikaigouqingqu,paichutianjianjishui,bingshidangpeigaoqimian,jiangdicaidishuiwei,jiaqiangturangtouqixing,cujinzhizhugenxishengzhang。baohudishucaiyingjishikaipengtongfengtouqi,yijiangdipengneishidu。dangbaoyuguohoushuiweijiangdaoluchuzhizhushi,jishifuzhengzhizhu,jianshaohuxiangjiya,jinxingrengongposhui,chongxiyepian,cujinguanghezuoyong。jishizhengzhidacha,zhaichucanyecanzhicanguo,chanchubingzhu,bimianbinghaizisheng。kefugaizheyangwangzheyinjiangwen,jianshaohejiangdizhengfaliang,fangzhizhizhushouyuhoufangqingdetianqiyingxiangerjixingweinian、siwang。zhongzhiguadoulei、qieguoleizuowudenonghu,jishixiuzhengjiagupengjiasheshi,fangzhidaotazaochengzhizhudeercishanghai。

  (er)jishizhuifei,baozhengzhizhuzhengchangshengzhang

  暴雨过后,植株根系吸收水肥的能力较差,及时采用土壤追肥和喷施叶面肥。追肥以速效氮肥和腐熟有机肥液为好,并注意适当少施;也可以用0.3%—0.5%尿素溶液、2%过磷酸钙浸出液、0.2%—0.3%磷酸二氢钾溶液。叶面肥可采用磷酸二氢钾肥、氨基酸等,可有效提高蔬菜的抗逆性,促进生长发育,增加产量。 

体育外围  (san)qiangzhongsushenghenaireshucai

体育外围  shoulaodikuaituishuihou,duiyushiqushengchanjiazhide、shishoude,yingjishiqiangzhongzhiboyixiesushengshucai、naireshucai,lirukongxincai、shengcai、xiancai、wengcai、yansui、tonghaodeng,zuidaxiandudimibuzaihaisunshi。

  (si)zuohaoqiubozhunbeigongzuo

  抓紧开展甘蓝、花椰菜、秋莴苣、生菜等苗床育苗工作。及时换茬,为8月中下旬的大白菜、萝卜的直播,甘蓝、莴苣、生菜的移栽,红菜薹、芥菜类的育苗等做准备。 

 san、jiaqiangbingchonghaifangzhi

  坚持“预防为主、综合防治”的原则,采用农业、物理、生物和化学措施相结合的综合防控技术,如需化学防治,应优先选用生物农药或低毒低残留农药,药物防治后必须于安全间隔期后方可采收。 

  (yi)fangzhibinghai

  1.黄瓜霜霉病、番茄晚疫病。可选用50%烯酰吗啉水分散粒剂1500倍液,或10%氰霜唑悬浮剂1500倍液,或68.75%氟菌·霜霉威悬浮剂1500倍液进行喷雾防治。 

  2.番茄早疫病。可选用50%异菌脲悬浮剂800倍液,或10%苯醚甲环唑水分散粒剂1000倍液进行喷雾防治。 

  3.黄瓜细菌性角斑病。可选用3%中生菌素600倍液,或47%春雷霉素·王铜可湿性粉剂800倍液进行喷雾防治。 

  4.豇豆根腐病。发病初期用50%多菌灵悬浮剂1000倍液,或100亿孢子/g枯草芽孢杆菌可湿性粉剂600倍液进行灌根防治。 

  5.瓜类、豆类、茄果类等病毒病。可选用2%氨基寡糖素水剂 600倍液进行预防用药,或8%宁南霉素800倍液进行喷雾防治。  

  (er)fangzhichonghai

  1.蚜虫。可选用10%氟啶虫酰胺水分散粒剂10002000倍液、10%溴氰虫酰胺水分散油悬浮剂10001500倍液、10%吡虫啉可湿性粉剂2000倍、25%噻虫嗪水分散粒剂3000倍液,3%啶虫脒乳油微乳剂1000倍液、10%氯噻啉可湿性粉剂3000倍液进行喷雾防治。 

  2.菜螟。在间苗、定苗时,如发现菜心被钻蛀或有潜道,可随手捕杀。在幼虫孵化至钻蛀前(或心叶有丝网时)及时喷雾防治。可选用10%四氯虫酰胺乳油1500倍液、2%甲氨基阿维菌素苯甲酸盐乳油1000倍液、10%虫螨腈悬浮剂1500倍液、 50/升虱螨脲乳油1000倍液、200/升氯虫苯甲酰胺悬浮剂2000倍液、10%溴氰虫酰胺可分散油悬浮剂2500倍液进行喷雾防治。 

  3.小菜蛾。可选用5%氯虫苯甲酰胺悬浮剂1000倍液、10%四氯虫酰胺乳油1000倍液、2%甲氨基阿维菌素苯甲酸盐乳油1200倍液、16000单位苏云金杆菌可湿性粉剂500倍液、10%虫螨腈悬浮剂1000倍液、15%茚虫威浓乳剂1000倍液进行喷雾防治。 

  4.菜青虫(菜粉蝶)。可结合小菜蛾或甜菜夜蛾进行兼防,如需单独防治,可选用16000单位苏云金杆菌可湿性粉剂1000倍液、0.3%印楝素乳油500倍液、0.5%苦参碱水剂800倍液、2%甲氨基阿维菌素苯甲酸盐乳油3000倍液进行喷雾防治。 

  5.黄曲条跳甲。可选用10%溴氰虫酰胺可分散油悬浮剂1500倍液、300/升氯虫苯甲酰胺•噻虫嗪悬浮剂1000倍液喷雾防治,也可以选择3%辛硫磷颗粒剂24kg/亩、1%联苯•噻虫胺颗粒剂24kg/亩,根部撒施进行防治。 

 

 

  guoyuanyingduihonglaozaihaishengchanjishuzhidaoyijian

体育外围  quanguonongyejishutuiguangtiyuwaiweizhongxin、nongyenongcunbuguoshuzhuanjiazhidaozu

体育外围  yi、jishikaigoushuqu,changtongguoyuanpaishui

  guoshushouyanhou,turangtongqibuzu,xigenyiyinqueyangerdaozhisiwang,zhongzelangensishu,yaojishipaishui,shishisongtu。zhuazhujiangyujianxie,kaigoushuqu,paichuguoyuanneijishui,jiangdidixiashuiwei,jianshaoguoyuanturanghanshuiliang。duijishuiyanzhongdediwadiguoyuan,shiyongchoushuishebeipaishui,meiyoumingshuidanyijingguoshuideguoyuan,zaishuguanwaiyuanneicekaiwapaishuigou,paichugenxijishui。youyunideguoyuanyaozaipaishuihoujishiqingliyuni,youqiyaojiangguoshugenjingbuyunijinkuaiqingchu,baozhengshutijinkuaihuifuzhengchangshengzhang。tianqinghouduiyuandijishisongtu,jiakuaishuifenzhengfa,shiturangshusongtongqi,zengqianggenxihuoli,dibiaoyoudimo、fanguangmodengfugaiwudeyaojishixiankaitouqi,jianshaogaowengaoshihuanjingduigenxideercishanghai。

体育外围  er、zuohaoshutiguanli,xiushanjiagusheshi

  honglaozaihaizaochengguoyuanshutiwaixiedaofudehejichusheshisunhuaide,yaojishifuzhenghexiushanjiagu。hongshuichonghuibengtadeguoyuan,jishixiubuchonghuidebufen,jiaguxiepotufanghepaishuiqudao,changtongpaishuidetongshifangzhishuituliushi,tigaoguoyuanzaiciyingduibaoyuqinxidenengli。duiyuputaodengbiyusheshizaipeiheguoshuzhijiadaodide,yaojishixiushanjiagu,yanzhongsunhuideyaochaichuzhongxindajian。

  持续内涝和流水冲击导致果树倒伏和主枝折断的,要及时扶正树体,并给树体喷水,清洗叶片,促进光合作用。及时剪除断裂的树枝,伤口可用1:10石灰水涂白,并用稻草包扎。折裂轻微的及时绑缚,加强支撑,并涂抹药剂,提高伤口的愈合能力。根系外露的,及时培土覆盖,防止阳光暴晒。对伤根严重的树,及时疏枝、剪叶、去果,以减少蒸腾量,防止树体死亡。 

  san、kexueshiyongnongyao,yufangbingchonghaibaofa

  洪涝侵袭后,高温高湿的环境利于病虫害生长繁殖,加之树体抗性下降,极易导致各种病虫害发生流行,应及早预防。雨后及时将病虫枝、烂果、烂叶等清出果园,减少病虫源。抢晴喷施1—2次广谱性杀虫剂、杀菌剂,杀菌剂如苯甲嘧菌酯、甲基硫菌灵、代森锰锌、波尔多液等,杀虫剂如菊酯类、植物源等低毒农药。柑橘园重点预防控制炭疽病、黑点病、溃疡病等病害和红蜘蛛、潜叶蛾、柑橘木虱、跳甲等虫害,同时做好保梢保果。葡萄园可用化学农药防治灰霉病、霜霉病、白腐病、酸腐病、炭疽病、枝干溃疡病等病害,以及叶蝉、红蜘蛛、粉蚧、蓟马、吸果夜蛾等虫害。梨园注意腐烂病、干腐病、轮纹病、黑星病、炭疽病、白粉病、梨黄粉蚜、梨小食心虫、红蜘蛛等病虫害的发生。 

  jinqicaizhaideshuiguoyaozhuyikexueyongyao,yangezhixingnongyaoanquanjiangeqiguiding,quebaoguopinanquan。penyaoshizhuyiyufangyaohaifasheng,bimianduozhongtongyiyouxiaochengfendezhijihunyong。tongshizhuyitigaoyaojiwuhuachengdu、tigaopenyaozhiliang,zuodaozhigan、yepianzhengfanjunyunyongyao,tongshiduidimianyeyaojinxingshiyao。

体育外围  si、jiaqiangyingyangguanli,peiyangqiangjianshushi

  果园受涝后,土壤肥料流失,受损根系吸收肥水能力减弱,不宜立即进行根部施肥。可叶面喷施0.1%—0.3%的磷酸二氢钾、0.1%0.3%尿素、芸苔素内脂、农用核苷酸等叶面肥强化叶面功能、增强光合作用和树体的营养积累。避免在中午高温期间喷施,同时叶面肥浓度不宜太高,应较平时略稀,可与病虫害防治药剂一同施用。 

  受损较小的果园,积水排出一周后,可追施以氮、磷肥为主的速效肥料或复合肥,促发新根,加快树势恢复。根系受损严重的,待水退1个月、树势恢复正常后,再施用腐熟的人畜粪尿、饼肥或尿素,促发新根。坐果的果园,后期增施钾肥,追施叶面肥,及时补充营养供给,促进果实增大。 

 

  chayuanyingduihonglaozaihaishengchanjishuzhidaoyijian

  quanguonongyejishutuiguangtiyuwaiweizhongxin、nongyenongcunbuchayezhuanjiazhidaozu

体育外围  yi、zhuahaozaihaiyufangheqiangshou

  高度重视和警惕暴雨成灾,及时关注天气预报,落实防灾减灾措施。暴雨前,检查疏通茶园排灌沟渠,确保排水正常。缺少排水沟渠的,应在园内及四周抢挖排水沟,低洼或地下水位过高茶园,需开挖1米以上深沟进行排水。适采茶园应组织抢收抢制,减轻损失。

  er、zhuahaoshoulaochayuanqiangpai

  受涝投产茶园要尽快组织劳力排除明水,对于平地、平畈茶园及时在茶园四周开挖围沟,中间开挖中沟或厢沟排水,将地下水位降至1米以下,尽快降低土壤湿度和环境湿度,严防茶树长时间浸泡引起死根烂根。对于抗涝能力弱的茶树良种繁育基地和幼龄茶园,宜用水泵直接抽水,及时开沟排水,清沟排渍,减轻渍害、涝害的影响。

  san、zhuahaoshousunchayuanqiangxiu

  zhuajinxiufushuihuichayuandaolu、gouqu、bengzhandengnongyejichusheshi。duiyuchashuliangzhongfanyujidi,zhongdianshijiakuaixiufumiaopudipenguansheshijibengzhan、shousundepengshihezheyinsheshi。duishandi、qiulingchayuanyaozhuajinzhengxiudaolu、gouquhetikan,shutonggouqu,baozhengshui、luchangtong,fangzhicishengzaihaifasheng。duikuatachayuan,yaoxunsuzuzhixiufuzhongjian,jinkuaihuifuyuanxiang。duiyanzhongshuihuichayuan,keshiqingkuangtuichahailin,liudaidongchunjijiezaishu,gaizuochayuanshengtaiyongdi。

  si、zhuahaozaihouchayuanguanli

体育外围  (yi)jiaqiangshutiguanli

体育外围  zaihoujishiqinglichayuan,duiyuhongshuichongpaodechayuan,jinkuaiqingchushuguanshangdewunizawu,baochishuguanqingjieweisheng;duiyushuidashayadechayuan,jinkuaiwachuduijidenitunisha;duiyuyoulingchayuanyaofuzhengdaofushuti,peitufugaigenxi,baohuchamiaozhilichenghuo。

  duishuiyanshijianguozhang、shanggenyanzhong、yepianchuxianmingxianweiyanzhengzhuangdechashu,zaipaishui、qinggoupaizi、biaotuganzaohou,yongxiujianjijinxingzhongxiujianhuoshenxiujian,jianshaochashuzhiyeshuifenzhengfaheyangfenxiaohao,fangzhizhengzhusiwang。duilugen、shanggendechashu,jishipeitu,jianchudainishadetuodizhiheduanzhidengzhitiao。qitashouzaichayuanjishixiujian,peiyangfengchanshuguan,cushixinyamengfazhengqi。

体育外围  (er)jiaqiangshifeiguanli

  为促进茶树生发新根,恢复树势,受灾茶园要抓紧抢晴浅耕除草,开沟施肥,沟深15厘米左右,施肥后及时覆土。肥料可选用腐熟有机肥和复合肥,投产茶园一般亩施100公斤有机肥和2030公斤复合肥(可分2次施),13年生幼龄茶园一般亩施3050公斤有机肥和1020公斤复合肥(可分2次施)。 

体育外围  (san)jiaqiangbingchonghaifangzhi

  一是可通过适度修剪和喷施25%吡唑醚菌酯乳油1500-2000倍液预防茶树病害。二是加强对茶小绿叶蝉、茶尺蠖、灰茶尺蠖等主要害虫的预测预报,落实杀虫灯、性诱剂和色板等绿色防控措施。当害虫达到防治指标时,首选植物源、矿物源和微生物农药进行防治,使用茶尺蠖病毒制剂、短稳杆菌、茶皂素等防治茶尺蠖和灰茶尺蠖,使用苦参碱等植物源农药防治茶小绿叶蝉,使用矿物油乳油防治害螨等。同时,预备虫螨腈等低水溶性化学农药作为应急药剂。三是幼龄茶园应注意抑制草害,使用作物秸秆、山杂草、绿肥等进行行间覆盖,覆盖厚度10厘米左右。 

 

  zhongyaocaiyingduigaowenbaoyushengchanjishuzhidaoyijian

  quanguonongyejishutuiguangtiyuwaiweizhongxin、nongyenongcunbuzhongyaocaizhuanjiazhidaozu

 

体育外围  yi、gaowenbaoyuduizhongyaocaishengchandeyingxiang

体育外围  (yi)genxishengzhangshoudaoyizhi

  genxishizhiwushusongyangfenheshuifendezhongyaoqiguan,shuiyanhougenxizaiqueyangtiaojianxiawufajinxingyouyanghuxi,qiyangfenxishounenglidadajianruo,genxibiandeshouruoxiuse,jinyukusi,jidadiyizhilegenxideshengzhang,jineryingxiangzhongyaocaideshengchan。

  (er)dishangbufenshengzhangshoudaoyingxiang

  qiangjiangyuhuiduiludihualei、guoleizhongyaocaideshengzhangzaochengluohualuoguo,shouzaiyanzhongdikuaishenzhihuijuechan;duigenleiyaocaizhuyaoshizaochenggenxishousun,daozhiyangfendexishoubuzu,zhizhuyepianweiniankuhuang,chanliangyupinzhishuangjiang。

  (san)zhongyaocaibinghaijiaju

  gaoshigaowenhuanjingweiduozhongbinghaidebaofayuliuxingtigongyoulitiaojian。yanshuizhizhudekangbingnenglijijujiangdi,daozhiyaocaiyibing、tanjubingdengbinghaijiaju。zhongyaocaishuifenguodayeyizaochengguoshihegenkailie。

  er、zaihouguanlicuoshi

体育外围  (yi)zuohaozaihaiyufangguanli

  gaoduzhongshihejingtibaoyuchengzai,jishiguanzhutianqiyubao,luoshifangzaijianzaicuoshi。baoyulailinqian,renzhenjianchatianjiangeleipailaosheshi,jishizuohaoweixiuhebaoyang,zuohaogouqushutongyuqingli。

体育外围  (er)jishipaishuiqingyu

  及时疏通中药材田间沟渠,抓紧开挖排水沟,疏通畦沟、围沟和腰沟,排除渍水,防止田间积水,做到随下随排,缩短中药材受淹时间。对地势低洼排水不畅的地块,要安排动力排水,抢时间排除渍水,降低地下水位,减轻因积水和涝害导致的中药材生理性病害,促进中药材根系恢复生长

体育外围  (san)zhuahaoyaoyuanqiangxiu

  qinglitianjiandecanzhi、luoye,zhongyaocaizhizhuxiabulaoye、huangyejibingye,jianshaobingjun。sanqi、zhonglou、shihu、tianma、huangjingdengtianjianjianyouyinpengsheshidezhongyaocaijidi,jishiqiangxiuweihu,jiagupengjia,genghuanposundezheyangwanghuojiegan,fangzhiyuhoutianqinggaowenpushaisunshi。ruohongshuituihouhuodayutinghouyudaolianxugaowenbaoshaitianqi,kezaizhongyaocaitianjiandazhuanghuojiangongpengfugaizheyangwang,fangzhiyuhoubaoshaihetianjiangaowengaoshidaozhizhongyaocaigenfusiwang,cujinzhongyaocaihuifushengzhang。

  (si)zuohaozhonggengsongtu

  yuhoupaichutianjianzishuihou,jishijinxingtianjianzhonggengsongtu,fangzhiturangbanjie,yingxianggenxishengzhang,bingjishishiyongyaojifangzhibingjunqinran,bimianzaochengbinghaibaofa。

体育外围  (wu)jiaqiangbingchonghaifangzhi

  liyongyutingjianxizuohaobingchongcaofangzhi,jishiqinglitianjianhesizhouzacao、canzhilanyehenongyefeiqiwu,tianjiansizhouheqigoukesashishihuihuocaomuhuijinxingxiaodumiejun、miechong。miqieguanzhugenfubing、shuangmeibing、yebanbing、tanjubing、heibanbing、ruanfubingdengbinghaifasheng,jishizuohaoyufangcuoshi。jiaqiangbingchongjiance,shishikaizhanyingjifangzhihetongfangtongzhi,jianqingbingchongweihai。

  (liu)zuohaokexueshifei

  xunqizhangqiyushuijinpao,daozhizhongyaocaigenxishousunhetianjianturangyangfensunshi,jishishishigenwaizhuifei,yonglinsuanerqingjiahuoxiangguanyemianfeidengjinxingyemianpenshi,cushizhizhuhuifushengzhang。

  (qi)jishiqiangshouyubuzhonggaizhong

体育外围  duihuangjing、baijidengduonianshengyaocaiheaiye、xiakucaodengyelei、quancaoleiyaocaiyingjishizuzhiqiangshou,jianshaosunshi。hongshuiqinpaohoudezhongyaocaijidi,zaihongshuituihouyaojishifuzhengdaofudezhizhu,qingliyepianshangcanliudeyuni,yiliyuguanghezuoyongdejinxing,shizhizhujinkuaihuifushengzhang,keyongpenwuqipenqingshuidefangfajinxingqingxi。duiyixieshouzaiyanzhongdezhongyaocaijidi,xunqingguohoujishifangengtiankuai,jinxingbuzhonghuogaizhong。

  (ba)jiaqiangzhuzangjiagongguanli

  gaowenbaoyuqijian,kongqishiduda,zhongyaocaijiyishouchao,zaizhuzangbaoguanzhongyifashengjiekuaichaojie、meilanbianzhihewuranshengchongdengzhiliangwenti,chulechangguidefangchao、fangshi、fangmeibian、fangchongzhu、fangshuhai,yijikongzhizhuzangcangkudewendu、baochiyinliangwai,haiyingzhuyitongfengjiduifangwenti,jinxingfenleijishaixuan,zuodaokexueguanli、zhuzangjiyanghu。

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